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Coyote Conflicts in Perth County

Coyote Conflicts in Perth County

This Report is written as the request of County Council to research and make recommendations relating to concerns about coyotes in the county.

Research was conducted in the following manner;

  1. Discussions with local hunters/trappers
  2. Review of newspaper articles
  3. Internet search for information
  4. Review of legislation
  5. Discussions with Ministry of Natural Resources

Links and Information


Emerald Ash Borer

Q1. What is EAB?

EAB is a highly destructive invasive pest of ash trees that was confirmed in Canada for the first time in the summer of 2002. It has killed a large number of ash trees in southwestern Ontario and poses a major economic and environmental threat to urban and forested areas across Canada and the U.S. EAB does not pose a risk to human health.

Q2. What does EAB look like?

The beetle is metallic green in colour and is 8.5-14.0 mm (about 1/2 inch) long and 3.1-3.4 mm (1/8 inch) wide. While the back of the insect is an iridescent, metallic green, the underside is a bright, emerald green. The body is narrow and elongated, and the head is flat. The eyes are kidney shaped and usually black.

EAB larva is white and flat, has distinctive bell shaped segments and can grow up to 30 mm (1 inch) long.

EAB Adult EAB Side ViewEAB Larva

Q3. What trees species are susceptible to attack by EAB?

In North America, EAB has been found to attack and kill all North American species of ash. The mountain ash is not related to ash trees and is not attacked by EAB.

Infested ash trees in North America generally die after two to three years, but heavily infested trees have been observed to die after one year of beetle attack.

Q4. How serious a threat is EAB?

EAB poses a very serious threat to all species of ash trees throughout their range in the U.S. and Canada. During the relatively short time that EAB has been in North America, it is believed to have killed more than 20 million trees in the U.S. and Canada. Billions more trees across North America are at risk of infestation and death.

Q5. What is the importance of ash trees?

Ash trees are an important part of Canada's urban and rural landscape. They are commonly found on city streets, in woodlots, in windbreaks and in forests across southern Canada. In many areas of western Canada, ash trees are one of the few genera which are suitable for street-planting in urban areas.

Ash wood is also used to make furniture, hardwood floors, baseball bats, tool handles, electric guitars, hockey sticks and other materials that need high strength and resilience.

Q6. Where did EAB come from? How did it get to Canada? How long has it been here?

EAB is native to China and eastern Asia, and was found in North America in 2002. In May 2002, it was discovered in southeastern Michigan in the U.S. and in July 2002 it was found in Essex County in Ontario. Like some other exotic pests that affect plants and trees, it is believed to have been accidentally introduced to North America on imported wood packaging or crating material.

Q7. How is EAB spread?

The human movement of infested materials such as firewood, logs, branches, nursery stock, chips or other ash wood is the most common way EAB has been spread. Research on EAB indicates the adult beetle can fly up to 10 km, but generally does not stray from the immediate area when it emerges.

Q8. Where has EAB been found in Canada?

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) conducts ongoing surveys to determine the leading edge of EAB infestation in Canada and to detect any new populations that may have resulted through the movement of infested firewood, nursery stock or other ash forest products. In Canada, EAB has been confirmed in the municipalities of Chatham-Kent and Bluewater; the regional municipality of Waterloo; Elgin, Essex, Lambton, Middlesex, Norfolk and Oxford counties, the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville; Brampton, Brantford, Hamilton, Mississauga, Oakville, Ottawa, Pickering, Sault Ste. Marie, Welland, Toronto and Vaughan; and in the municipality of Carignan in Quebec.

Q9. Who has the responsibility for regulatory control of EAB?

Under the authority of the Plant Protection Act, the CFIA is the agency responsible for preventing pests of quarantine significance from entering or spreading within Canada. When pests of quarantine significance become established a decision must be made, in consultation with other federal, provincial and municipal government departments and stakeholders, whether there is merit in trying to eradicate or contain the pest. Continued efforts and cooperation of all partners are required to protect Canada's valuable forest resources.

Q10. What is the proposed CFIA plan to control EAB?

The CFIA believes there is continued merit in slowing the spread of EAB within Canada and protecting this country's vast ash resource. Consistent with the position of its federal, provincial and municipal partners, the current emphasis is on continued research, surveillance, effective communications and enforcement activities.

The CFIA continues to consult with federal, provincial and municipal partners and stakeholders on science-based strategies for the detection and control of EAB. Biological control and natural tree resistance may play increasingly important roles in managing EAB populations.

Q11. Will the CFIA remove trees in infested areas?

No. When EAB was first detected in Canada, the CFIA's control and eradication measures included cutting down infested trees. The CFIA has since determined that removing infested host trees is not an effective tool in the management of EAB. The CFIA only orders trees to be removed within regulated areas for the purpose of supporting research.

Q12. What are regulated areas and how are they established?

Regulated areas are created to slow or prevent the spread of pests that could adversely affect plant life. Generally, restrictions or prohibitions are placed on areas where the pest is present or suspected to occur and where there is merit in trying to slow or prevent the spread of the pest. One way to establish a regulated area is through a Ministerial Order.

Regulated areas allow the CFIA to maintain and enforce restrictive measures for the movement of potentially infested wood items from areas where EAB has been found. This is necessary to slow the spread of EAB, to protect the health of Canada's trees and forests and to prevent economic losses to the nursery, lumber and tourism industries and municipalities.

Additionally, the Ministerial Orders that define the regulated areas officially identify the areas of Canada to be infested with EAB. This allows areas in Canada that are not infested with EAB to continue to export ash nursery stock and forest products to our trading partners.

Another way the CFIA establishes a regulated area is by issuing a notice of Prohibition of Movement or Notice of Quarantine to individual property owners to restrict or prohibit the movement of high-risk materials from properties that are confirmed or suspected to be infested with EAB.

Q13. Where are the regulated areas for EAB in Canada?

The areas that are designated as regulated areas for EAB under Ministerial Orders:


•       Cities of Hamilton and Toronto and the Regional Municipalities of Durham, York, Peel, Halton and Niagara

•       City of Sault Ste. Marie

•       Huron County

•       Municipality of Chatham-Kent and the Counties of Elgin, Essex, Lambton and Middlesex

•       Norfolk County

Ontario - Quebec

•       City of Gatineau, in the Province of Québec and the City of Ottawa, in the Province of Ontario


•       Municipalities of Carignan, Chambly, Richelieu, Saint-Basile-le-Grand and Saint-Mathias-sur-Richelieu

Regulated articles such as ash tree materials and firewood of all species cannot be removed from these areas without prior permission of the CFIA.

Q14. Are Essex County and the Municipality of Chatham-Kent, Lambton County, Elgin County, and Middlesex County still regulated areas for EAB?

Yes. Although the previous Ministerial Orders for the County of Essex and the Municipality of Chatham-Kent, and Lambton, Elgin, and Middlesex counties have been repealed, these areas are now covered under one Ministerial Order for southwestern Ontario. Regulated articles such as ash tree articles and firewood of all species can now move freely within this larger regulated area.

Q15. Why are areas being amalgamated in southwestern Ontario and Toronto and surrounding areas and what will this change do?

The EAB Science Committee recently recommended that the CFIA move to regulating larger areas. When the beetle has been detected, the population likely has been present for 5-7 years prior. The CFIA amalgamated Toronto and surrounding areas as well as the counties of Essex, Elgin, Middlesex, Lambton and the municipality of Chatham-Kent in order to allow inspectors to focus efforts on preventing the movement of regulated articles from infested areas to areas where EAB has not been detected. Surveillance activities outside the regulated areas include surveying high risk sites such as campgrounds, nurseries and woodlots, which will help prevent spread of the pest to areas where EAB is not known to occur.

Along with this compliance activity, CFIA continues its efforts to improve education and awareness of EAB in regulated areas as part of the slow-the-spread strategy.

Q16. Why are Huron County and Norfolk County being regulated separately?

When making regulatory decisions the CFIA tries to find an approach that balances science with the needs of industry and the concerns of interested parties. In the case of Norfolk County, the CFIA recognizes the control efforts that have been put in place there. However, in order for both Norfolk County and Huron County to remain separately regulated from the rest of southwestern Ontario, the CFIA will continue to monitor for EAB. Survey results will guide future decisions for those counties.

Q17. What items are restricted from leaving regulated areas?

Regulated articles in include: ash nursery stock, ash trees, ash logs, ash wood, rough lumber including pallets and other wood packaging materials from ash, wood, bark, wood chips or bark chips from ash trees and firewood of all tree species. These orders extend to vehicles that were used to carry any of these items. Movement of these materials from regulated areas is permitted only if the materials have been treated to kill or remove all life stages of EAB and if written permission has been obtained from a CFIA inspector.

Q18. If my products are produced in accordance with the Canadian Heat Treated Wood Packaging Certification Program (CHTWPCP) or the Canadian Wood Packaging Certification Program (CWPCP), do I still need to obtain a movement certificate from a CFIA inspector before moving materials from a regulated area?

No. If you are a member of the Canadian Heat Treated Wood Packaging Certification Program (CHTWPCP) or the Canadian Wood Packaging Certification Program (CWPCP) and your products are made in accordance with the program standards, you do not need to obtain a movement certificate from a CFIA inspector before moving material from a regulated area because these programs mitigate the risk of spreading EAB and are audited/monitored by the CFIA.

Q19. How is the CFIA increasing public awareness of the requirements of the Ministerial Orders?

The Agency has been increasing public awareness of EAB and the requirements of the Ministerial Orders by:

•       publicizing the regulations on the movement of firewood and ash tree materials in newspapers and on the radio;

•       actively seeking opportunities to present information or speak on EAB;

•       holding public meetings and keeping the public, stakeholders and affected industries up to date through CFIA web site information;

•       distributing posters and other printed materials to the public, impacted areas and to affected industries; and

•       taking effective enforcement actions when warranted.

Continued cooperation from the public is essential if we are to slow the spread of this pest.

Q20. What do I do if I suspect my ash tree is infested?

If you are not in one of the areas regulated for EAB and suspect signs of infestation on your ash trees, contact the CFIA at 1-866-463-6017.

If you are in an EAB-regulated area and have recently trimmed or cut down your ash tree, please call the CFIA for directions on disposal.

Q21. What can I do to help?

Do not move the regulated materials.
Buy and burn firewood locally.
Report signs of EAB infestation to the CFIA.

Toll free: 1-866-463-6017
Help Protect Canada's Trees and Forests.

For more information visit the CFIA web site: